Engineers and Builders of
YORK AND ST. CLAIR COMPOUND
Capacity ranging from
2 TO 200 Tons.
Communications should be addressed to
A. Hoen & Co.
York Manufacturing Co.,
GEO. W. S. LOUCKS, - - - Secretary.
W. L. GLATFELTER, - - Treasurer.
STUART ST. CLAIR, - - Gen'l Manager.
To INTEGRITY in business, SKILLED WORKMANSHIP, GOOD MATERIAL, and the patronage of a discerning public do we owe our success, and to the latter do we dedicate this volume, with the hope that it may receive at their hands the consideration due the care taken in its production.
YORK MANUFACTURING CO., Limited
Employ nothing but the best labor.
Pay nothing but the highest wages.
Do all work upon the day system. Use the best and highest grade labor-saving tools. Use nothing but the best material.
Guess at nothing, but TEST EVERYTHING.
Guarantee our work as second to none in the country.
Challenge the world to produce, either in design, work-manship or combination, a better machine, or one giving better results.
THE York Manufacturing Co., Limited, in presenting the few remarks contained in this pamphlet to the public, are not attempting to write a history of the business, or a scientific treatise on the subject of refrigeration, but simply meet the constant demands made upon us for a catalogue or descriptive pamphlet of our machine and the claims made for it, and prevent the necessity of many long letters in answer to the inquiries made concerning our business.
With a rapidly growing business, and a demand upon our time for constant personal application to see that our customers are properly served with the best of workmanship, we have neither time or inclination to write more than that actually necessary to show up the merits of what we are doing.
To our Contemporaries
We would say (should any of them by chance peruse this) that we wish to present our work with all honesty and fairness, and in making claims of superiority, show by mechanical argument that we possess these advantages. We acknowledge and recognize with admiration the ability of some of our competitors, and only ask from them the same courtesy we, ourselves, extend-a frank acknowledgment of ability and merit-knowing there is work for us all, and a firm belief in the doctrine a "Survival of the Fittest."
The Principles of Refrigeration
The principle of Refrigeration is reduced to four words "the absorption of heat," the definition of the word cold being simply "the absence of heat;" There are many ways attempted, and not a few partially successful, to accomplish this object; and without going into elaborate details or descriptions of the various methods, we will endeavor to reduce the argument to a commercial one, viz., dollars and cents, and show that the only successful method of this principle is the one most used, viz., mechanical compression.
A glance at the Other Side.
THE VACUUM SYSTEM, as far as developed (and its case seems hopeless), has been the most unsatisfactory of all attempts, and is so little known, and so seldom offered in competition, that we need not discuss it here.
THE ABSORPTION SYSTEM, which is the alluring, the most feasible, and the most thoroughly calculated to catch the casual observer, is well worthy of consideration, if for no other reason than in memory of the millions that have been wasted in the effort to make it go. The principle is so simple that "the wayfaring man, though a fool, need not err therein" (so they tell you), but the wise have "gone in" and "come out"
sorrowful. It must not be understood that it is our intention to make little of the subject-far from it.
That there has been quite a number of successful Absorption machines, we cannot deny, but it takes peculiar conditions to make them successful; and, as these conditions do not present themselves in all places, the machine will necessarily remain unsatisfactory.
Now, that we not be understood as dealing in generalities, we will state our reasons, mechanically and chemically, for assuming as much as we have, and speak of what we know.
The mechanical construction of the Absorption machine is of such character, viz., with internal coils (that is to say, steam and water coils) in the Still or Ammonia Boiler, Rectifyer, Exchanger, and Absorber (all of which contain ammonia), that it is bad, and means much loss (when they become broken or leak), not only of ammonia, but of time, and, in most cases, valuable time. Chemically, it is possible to evaporate gas from ammonia liquor at 26 and 28 degrees Baume, at low temperature, but impossible to both evaporate and compress to sufficient tension to produce liquefaction of the gas at the normal temperature of water, without entraining and evaporating a large percentage of water with it, notwithstanding the many
ingenious contrivances to trap same and return to Still. (We state this from practical tests made of gas produced in this matter.) Pure liquid anhydrous ammonia will boil in one atmosphere at 28.6 degrees below zero; and, as the word implies ammonia without water, an Absorption machine cannot produce that kind of ammonia, and, as a result, it boils at a much higher temperature and absorbs, proportionately, less heat, thus adding to the duty of the machine in having to handle its material oftener, and the consequent use of more fuel. Another serious trouble is the constant accumulation of the aqueous matter in the refrigerating coils, which not only obstructs the passage of the gas, but, at the low temperature of the brine, retains much of the strength of the charge and causes the novice to often wonder where his ammonia has gone. There are many other points, such as the generation of inflammable gases, which are incompressible (at the pressure carried), unabsorbable and a constant source of annoyance.
The water question speaks for itself. They require and use from twice to three times the quantity used by a Compression machine, and, as heat cannot be obtained, nor water pumped without the expenditure of energy, you have in a nutshell the result-the extravagant use of fuel.
(OR THE CAUSE).
Mechanical compression has been, is now, and is likely to remain, the most popular method of operation in refrigeration. Of the different types or styles (and their name is legion) we will only take note of the most prominent, and endeavor to show that we are entirely honest in what we are doing and in believing that we have the best Refrigerating machine on the market, for the reason we are working from the best mechanical standards of the day. All of our improvements and points of excellence claimed, if not original, have been adopted only after a thorough and careful test of their merits, and the duplicate orders we are receiving from various sections attest our statement.
Of the numerous types of mechanical compressors, there is the single-acting vertical, the single-acting horizontal, the double-acting vertical and horizontal; there is the "no-oil" and the "oil" system, the fast and the slow motion; there is also a system using a low tension gas (sulphurous oxide), which, though liquefiable at low tension, is also as low in its heat-absorbing qualities; consequently it hasno particular merit and is almost an isolated case.
The latest, and certainly not the least, is the Single-Acting Vertical Compound No-Oil System, entirely original as regards its application, in accord with the best chemical and mechanical laws, and, what is far better, of proved efficiency.
In presenting the claims of this machine, we will endeavor to do so in a comparative manner, and deal only with the mechanical points of superiority, offering both sides of the question for argument.
Oil vs. No Oil.
As certain social evils existing to-day are the relics of barbarism, so is the Oil system the relic of bad mechanics, and, as remarked in our hearing lately by a prominent engineer, "only retained at the present time because a large business was made on canvass of its merits, and too many machines in use that would be considered out of date if it was abandoned; but the quality is reduced to the minimum." We have no such "millstone" about our neck, so can come boldly forth and proclaim our improvements.
The bad mechanics referred to, which have been submerged in "oil," have been badly constructed pistons, badly bored cylinders, faulty valve construction, inability to work close to head, and imperfect joints, which this oils was to effectually
seal, and, while acting as a seal to bad work, was also effectually "sealing" the whole system by polluting the internal surface of the refrigerating coils and destroying their efficiency. Concealed bad mechanics is not the only evil of the "Oil system;" it compels a slow piston speed and hence an extravagant use of fuel, for a substance as heavy as oil cannot be expelled as freely as an elastic gas; in short, we have seen an expensive machine wrecked by the simple accident of a governor belt breaking and the consequent increase speed of the machine which accident (though not desirable on any machine) is not dangerous one on a machine not using oil. Some one will say, "We only use a little oil" Why use any? With proper construction, lubrication is absolutely unnecessary.
Single-Acting vs. Double-Acting
The builders of Double-Acting machines make it a strong point in canvass to call attention to the fact that they are running with one-half the friction of Single-Acting pumps, but fail to say with a largely reduced efficiency. We take issue on point of friction; with only expansion pressure on our rods we are enabled to run them perfectly free, whereas in Double-Acting pumps they have to be run very tight; and all engineers who have given this matter any thought know that piston friction, when proper construction is used, is almost Nil.
We have been amazed, from a mechanical standpoint, to see some of the oldest builders of Single-Acting machines convert them into Double-Acting machines, and have made careful estimates and research for the cause, as it was so contrary to good mechanics, and would be much more profitable for us to adopt; but, after the most careful consideration and inquiry, find that it has been done at entire disregard of mechanics and only to make the almighty dollar.
We can build you Double-Acting machines as good as our neighbor's, but we would not, for we know they fall far short in efficiency. It would cost us much less money for the same machine, but it would cost you more money to operate.
Another strong point against the Double-Acting pumps, and we will dismiss the subject. The word clearance in a Vacuum or Compression pump is as fatal to efficiency as the word if is to many of our aspirations; that is to say, the little space between the head and the piston (which, we have explained, some try to remove by the use of oil) can never be worked closely in Double-Acting pumps, for the least wear of the brasses means a striking of one head or the other and consequent damage to the machine; hence, even with the most careful adjustment, there is a continued danger, while on Single-Acting machines we travel clear up to the head (which contains the valves), and any wear that may occur is away from, not up to, the head, which an adjustment of the brasses restores without a care.
The bad effect of the clearance referred to is that any gas, compressed and not expelled, expands back and partially fills the cylinder with gas already once handled, preventing the gas we desire to "aspirate" or bring from refrigerating coils getting in; in short, all space occupied by this gas expanding back is waste.
The Merits of Single-Acting Machines.
The merits of all Single-Acting machines, so far as principle goes, is apparent to any engineer; but of them are machines and machines. There are some that no man, who at all values his reputation, can in any way gainsay, as they are models of good engineering ability, giving good results and everywhere appreciated. We can use no arguments against such machines, and, in meeting them in competition, must rely upon late improvements we have made in our compound type to give us the preference, and will endeavor to now devote a little space to our claims on the machine we build.
Our sole subject in presenting the foregoing has been to meet, if possible, arguments that may be presented and define our position, not as one hostile to good, honest mechanics, but as a recognition of merit, wherever we may meet it, and a solicitation of trade on the merits of our machines alone. A glance at the foregoing section section of our small machines will assist in fully appreciating the various good points incorporated therein.
A Word of Warning.
There has been a class of machines, and we might say builders, ignored in the foregoing, as we regard them as nothing more than experimentalists, who do nothing but harm to the business.
The past several mild winters, which caused a large demand for Ice and Refrigerating machines, brought with them the usual rush of people who can "learn anything in a minute," and, as a result, a large number of buyers have been victimized and much damage done to the legitimate trade. In all classes of business there is only one safe method: deal with thoroughly reliable houses, who are able to make their contracts good, and who have a reputation and a record in the business, and, above all, avoid those who have nothing but wholesale denunciation for their competitors.
The advent of Ice and Refrigeration, a journal of marked merit, we believe, will be the means of exposing many of these frauds, and also of educating the public in a business that directly and indirectly represents a very large amount of capital, and has long needed an organ identified with its interests; and a careful perusal of its columns will convince any one interested that it will soon rank as one of the most important journals of the day.
The St. Clair Compound Machine.
The writer is a firm believer in evolution as being the only legitimate method for advancement in mechanics; hence the Compound Machine. The so-called "geniuses" who spring into existence and notoriety with ideas that are going to revolutionize the world are a "fake" and only shine on account of their "cheek."
In the history of the past century, or since the advent of steam, there has been no revolution-simply "evolution," a sure but steady improvement of a fixed law and principle; hence we deduce that the Ice machine of to-day is the Ice machine of the future, improved, changed in detail, but always the same in principle. Consequently, instead of chasing ideas, fancies, chimeras, we deal only in good, solid mechanics, and follow that line with care.
The idea of compounding a compressor is not a new one, for there are patents covering the idea issued in 1867; but it has been left to us to so construct and overcome the difficulties presented, and apply to compression of ammonia, that we can offer the public a machine combining all of these good qualities of the best Single-Acting machines, with a full saving of energy of not less than eighteen per cent. This may seem like an extravagant assertion, but nevertheless true.
It has only been of late years that there was supposed to be any gain in what is known as "high-pressure compound" on steam engines; that is, a compounding without condensing, or putting the compound idea entirely on its merits without the assistance of vacuum: but some of the best engine builders in the country have adopted, and are running with marked economy, such engines; and the same law, applied to compression of ammoniacal gas, has produced like results.
And, like the engine, no great change was necessary to effect this object; a reduction of the size of one of the pumps and an increase of the other. As an illustration, we will take a simple Single Acting machine of seven (7) tons ice-making capacity and show what it was converted into. The size of the two Single-Acting pumps necessary to do the amount of work named would be 8 x 14 inches. These two pumps combined give an area of a fraction over 100 square inches. The engine to drive same was 11½ x 15 inches and was well loaded, or worked to full capacity. One of the pumps was removed and a 14 x 14-inch substituted, containing nearly 154 square inches of area, or a trifle over three times the area of one of the 8-inch pumps; or, in short, making this one pump equal in aspirating power, or what is commonly called "suction" power, to three
8-inch pumps, or having the power of handling sufficient gas to make 10½ tons of ice. This large or low-pressure pump was used only as an "aspirator" and discharged into the one 8-inch pump on the top of the piston. The engine was only enlarged to 12 x 15 inches, and this machine made full 10½ tons of ice. At first glance, the gain would appear to be thirty-three (33) per cent., but it is not, for the reason that the compression curve is shortened in the high-pressure, or 8-inch cylinder, and consequently the engine gets its load earlier in the stroke. The load upon the low-pressure pump on compression is only equivalent to the load on the high, and one clearance is saved on the compression or high-pressure side. This change, though simple and in no way affecting the principles involved, at first presented many difficulties to overcome, but they have all been successfully met, and the gain is rather under than overestimated when put at 18 per cent.
We have in the foregoing endeavored to give in a plain way the result of our first experiment in this matter. Since then we have built, and have in successful operation, sixteen (16) of these machines, all of which have overreached our most sanguine hopes for them, and we are now building machines that are second orders, demonstrating the entire satisfaction they have given.
Of course, in the above description there are many minor details omitted, not with the intention of secreting or withholding anything on the subject, but simply to prevent this work from becoming tedious in the manner of detail; but would invite a careful and close scrutiny of the style, design and general detail of the following cuts.
(OR THE EFFECT.)
We will now dismiss the compressor or cause, and treat on the "Refrigerator" or effect, a department that has been seriously misunderstood by some of our best engineers. An experience of years and a careful record kept of a number of experiments mad, enable us to give reliable data on this subject, and a commercial result, unparalleled in the history of refrigeration, supports and gives full confidence to our claims. We are often asked the question: How we can produce the result we do with so small a compressor and so small an engine? We answer: that a perfect blending or harmony in our entire system is the cause.
The average calculation of Ice machine builders, is 16,000 cubic inches of ammonia gas pumped per minute, equals one (1) ton of ice made in 24 hours; we are producing exactly the same result with 12,000 cubic inches. We have already shown that we can handle the same number of cubic inches of gas with our Compound Compressor for less the cost of energy than our competitors, and now can show a greater result from the same number of inches handled.
The Reason Why
An Ice or Refrigerating machine is not simply a compressor, driven by any particular power, but is the proper combination and harmonious blending of all parts.
First of all, there is the proper proportion of surface feet in the refrigerating coils; second, the proper distribution of said coils, that is to say, the proper arrangement as to lengths and the manner in which the gas is manipulated through the coils. Of course ammonia gas, like all other materials, has its limit, and we have often remarked, the only reason some of our neighbors were enabled to do any work at all with their badly constructed machines, was the fact that ammonia would do the work under very hard conditions, but the true economy of the whole matter is to know when it has its load, and return it at once.
We advocate a short travel and a quick return in the refrigerating coils, and you will doubtless be astonished to learn that builders vary so much on the subject that some travel their gas as much as 1,400 feet continuously, while others only 200 feet, surely a wide difference of opinion, and someone must be wrong. Again, some use large pipe in expansion coils, even two (2) inch, on the ground that it relieves friction, and others maintain a high expansion or back pressure to force the pump to handle more gas, all of which is a fallacy.
First-The action of the ammonia gas is simply a boiling of that gas into a vapor and the consequent absorption of heat. Now, where the vapor is once formed, or the expansion has taken place, the gas has acquired its load of heat and should be removed at once; consequently short expansion coils and a quick removal of gas, when vaporized, is the correct method.
Second-The proper size of pipe has been with us a study, and we have adopted 1-inch; the reason is, we have fully demonstrated that there is no friction in vacuum, or from a voluntary movement of ammonia gas. This has been determined by a gauge on inlet and outlet headers, which has always registered the same. Some have made this test on a single pipe, but that was scarcely a correct method, as the high or condensing pressure passed the expansion valve a few feet and produced the result, or difference in pressure.
Another important feature in use of 1-in. over 2-in. pipe, is the fact that we handle only one-quarter the volume, and still expose half as much surface.
Third-The idea of forcing more work from the pumps because of carrying a high back pressure, is the very worst form of thermo-dynamics. We have previously stated that ammonia boils in one atmosphere (or when the gauge registers 0) at 28.6 degrees below zero; consequently the higher
the back pressure the higher the temperature in the expansion coils, and consequently the less heat absorbing power, so that it is folly to load your machine with a greater number of cubic inches of gas per stroke that has absorbed proportionately less heat. Many will take issue with this statement and say that in practice they have found the high back pressure does the most work; we admit it, because of the wrong construction of this one all-important feature--the refrigerating coils.
Compound Duplex Machine.
We would especially call attention to the foregoing cut of our two hundred (200) tom Refrigerating machine which has been specially designed for large operators. It combines all of the merits hereinbefore described as pertaining to our machines, with the additional feature of highest economy in use of fuel in refrigerating work; or in ice-making by the Plate system by the use of "direct expansion," an efficiency of ten (10) and even twelve (12) pounds of ice can be obtained from one (1) pound of good steam coal.
Another feature of the greatest importance is the the fact, that should any part become disabled, by disconnecting rods you can still operate a one hundred (100) ton machine.